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General Facts

Area: 7,692,024 km2 (2,969,907 sq miles)

Capital City: Canberra

Population: 24,934,200 (2018 estimate)

Official Languages: English  

Boarding Countries: None (island)

Coastline: 25,760 km (16,007 miles)

Currency: Australian Dollar (AUD)

Government: Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy 


The climate varies widely due to its large geographical size, but by far the largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid. Only the south-east and south-west corners have a temperate climate and moderately fertile soil. The northern part of the country has a tropical climate, varied between tropical rainforestsgrasslands and desert. Because Australia is a small continent, separated from polar regions by the Southern Ocean, it is not subject to the movements of frigid polar air that sweep over the continents in the northern hemisphere during winter. Consequently, its winter is relatively mild, so that there aren’t any great contrast between summer and winter temperatures that is present in the northern continents. Yet in many parts of the country, seasonal highs and lows can be considerable: temperatures have ranged from above 50 °C (122 °F) to well below zero. Nonetheless, minimum temperatures are moderated.

Five Largest Cities/Towns: 

1. Sydney (4,627,345)

2. Melbourne (4,246,375)

3. Brisbane (2,189,878)

4. Perth (1,896,548)

5. Adelaide (1,225,235)

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