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General Facts

Area: 9,984,670 km2 (3,855,100 sq miles)

Capital City: Ottawa

Population: 35,151,728 (2016 census)

Official Languages: English, French  

Boarding Countries: United States

Coastline: 202,080 km (125,567 miles)

Currency: Canadian Dollar (CAD)

Government: Parliamentary Constitutional Monarchy 


Canada is often associated with cold weather and snow, but in reality, its climate is as diverse as its landscape. Generally, there are four very distinct seasons, particularly in the more populated regions along the US border. Daytime summer temperatures can rise to 35°C and higher, while lows of -25°C are not uncommon in winter. More moderate temperatures are the norm in spring and fall. Summers can be hot and dry on the prairies, humid in central Canada, and milder on the coasts. Spring is generally pleasant across the country. Autumns are often crisp and cool. Winters are generally cold with periods of snow, although southern Alberta enjoys the occasional "Chinook", a warm dry wind from the Rocky Mountains that gusts through and melts the snow. Winters are mild and wet on the west coast, in cities such as Vancouver and Victoria.

Five Largest Cities/Towns: 

1. Toronto (2,600,000)

2. Montreal (1,600,000)

3. Calgary (1,019,942)

4. Ottawa (812,129)

5. Edmonton (712,391)

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