Area: 1,284,000 km2 (496,000 sq miles)
Capital City: N'Djamena
Population: 13,670,084 (2015 estimate)
Official Languages: Arabic, French
Boarding Countries: Nigeria, Central African Republic, Cameroon, Niger, Libya, Sudan
Currency: Central African CFA Franc (XAF)
Government: Presidential Republic
The three chief climatic zones are the Saharan, with a wide range of temperatures between day and night; the Sahelian, a semidesert; and the Sudanic, with relatively moderate temperatures. Extreme temperatures range from -12° to 50°c (10°–122°f); at N'Djamena the average daily maximums and minimums are 42°c (108°f) and 28°c (73°f) in April and 33°c (91°f) and 14°c (57°f) in December. The rains last from April (in the south) or July (farther north) through October. Average annual rainfall is about 76 cm (30 in) at N'Djamena. In the far south, it is as much as 122 cm (48 in), but at Faya-Largeau in the north, it averages only 2.5 cm (1 in).