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General Facts

Area: 283,561 km2 (109,484 sq miles)

Capital City: Quito

Population: 16,385,068 (2016 estimate)

Official Languages: Spanish

Boarding Countries: Peru, Colombia

Coastline: 2,237 km (1,390 miles)

Currency: US Dollar (USD)

Government: Constitutional Republic


The climate varies with the region. Most of the coast consists of wet, tropical forest, increasingly humid toward the north. In the Guayaquil area there are two seasons: a hot rainy period, lasting from January to May; and a cooler dry season, during the rest of the year. The tropical forests of the Oriente, east of the Andes, are more humid than the coast; there, temperatures are high, and rain falls all year round. The climate of the central plateau is governed mainly by the altitude. The capital, Quito, at 2,850 m (9,350 ft), has perpetual spring, with an average temperature of 13°c (55°f) and about 127 cm (50 in) of rainfall annually. The highlands are cut by numerous deep valleys, which bring subtropical climates to within a few miles of the more temperate areas. The higher areas rise to peaks above 5,200 m (17,000 ft) that are perpetually covered with snow.

Five Largest Cities/Towns: 

1. Guayaquil (2,278,691)

2. Quito (1,607,734)

3. Cuenca (329,928)

4. Santo Domingo (270,875)

5. Machala (231,260)

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