Area: 1,104,300 km2 (426,400 sq miles)
Capital City: Addis Ababa
Population: 102,403,196 (2016 estimate)
Official Languages: Amharic
Boarding Countries: Sudan, Djibouti, Eritrea, Somalia, Kenya, South Sudan
Currency: Birr (ETB)
Government: Parliamentary Republic
Ethiopian climate varies according to the different topographical regions. The central plateau has a moderate climate with minimal seasonal temperature variation. The mean minimum during the coldest season is 6°c (43°f), while the mean maximum rarely exceeds 26°c (79°f). Temperature variations in the lowlands are much greater, and the heat in the desert and Red Sea coastal areas is extreme, with occasional highs of 60°c (140°f). Heavy rainfall occurs in most of the country during June, July, and August. The High Plateau also experiences a second, though much milder, rainy season between December and February. Average annual precipitation on the central plateau is roughly 122 cm (48 in). The northern provinces receive less rainfall, and the average annual precipitation in the Ogaden is less than 10 cm (4 in). The westernmost region of Ethiopia receives an annual rainfall of nearly 200 cm (80 in).