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General Facts

Area: 22,072 km2 (8,522 sq miles)

Capital City: Jerusalem

Population: 8,850,800 (2018 estimate)

Official Languages: Hebrew, Arabic 

Boarding Countries: Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon

Coastline: 273 km (170 miles)

Currency: New Shekel (ILS)

Government: Parliamentary Republic


Although climatic conditions are varied across the country, the climate is generally temperate. The coldest month is January; the hottest, August. In winter, snow occasionally falls in the hills, where January temperatures normally fluctuate between 4–10°c (40–50°f), and August temperatures between 18–29°c (65–85°f). On the coastal plain, sea breezes temper the weather all year round, temperature variations ranging from 8–18°c (47–65°f) in January and 21–29°c (70–85°f) in August. In the south, at Elat, January temperatures range between 10–21°c (50–70°f) and may reach 49°c (120°f) in August. The rainy season lasts from October until April, with rainfall averaging 118 cm (44 in) annually in the Upper Galilee and only 2 cm (0.8 in) at Elat.

Five Largest Cities/Towns: 

1. Jerusalem (801,000)

2. Tel Aviv (432,892)

3. Haifa (267,300)

4. Ashdod (224,656)

5. Rishon LeZiyyon (220,492)

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