Mexico

General Facts

Area: 1,972,550 km2 (761,610 sq miles)

Capital City: Mexico City

Population: 123,675,325 (2017 estimate)

Official Languages: None at the Federal Level, but Spanish is the main spoken language  

Boarding Countries: United States, Guatemala, Belize

Coastline: 9,330 km (5,797 miles)

Currency: Peso (MXN)

Government: Presidential Constitutional Republic 

Climate

Mexico is a vast country and has different types of climate, however, it is generally arid on the west coast and the inland central-northern highlands, it becomes moderately rainy in the mountain ranges and the southern plateaus, while it's very rainy in some tropical southern areas. Summer is the rainiest season almost everywhere. 
The temperature increases gradually from north to south, so that the south has a purely tropical climate. Altitude plays an important role as well: there are many cities located at high altitude, including the capital, which have a cooler climate. 
During winter, a cold wind from the United States, the "Norte", is able to lower the temperature abruptly, especially in the centre-north. Because of this wind, the northern inland areas during winter may experience cold waves, especially in hilly and mountainous areas. 

Five Largest Cities/Towns: 

1. Mexico City (12,294,193)

2. Iztapalapa (1,820,888)

3. Ecatepec de Morelos (1,806,226)

4. Guadalajara (1,640,589)

5. Puebla City (1,590,256)