General Facts

Area: 1,566,000 km2 (605,000 sq miles)

Capital City: Ulaanbaatar

Population: 3,081,677 (2016 estimate)

Official Languages: Mongolian 

Boarding Countries: Russia, China

Coastline: None

Currency: Togrog (MNT)

Government: Semi-Presidential Republic


Mongolia has an arid continental climate with a wide seasonal range of temperature and low precipitation. In winter, it is the site of the great Siberian high, which governs the climate of a large part of Asia and gives Mongolia average winter temperatures of -21° to -6°c (-6° to -22°f) and dry, virtually snowless winters. In summer, remnants of the southeasterly monsoon bring most of the year's precipitation. Annual precipitation ranges from 25 to 38 cm (10 to 15 in) in mountain areas to less than 10 cm (4 in) in the Gobi.

Five Largest Cities/Towns: 

1. Ulaanbaatar (844,818)

2. Erdenet (79,647)

3. Darhan (74,300)

4. Khovd (30,500)

5. Olgii (28,400)