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General Facts

Area: 41,543 km2 (16,040 sq miles)

Capital City: Amsterdam

Population: 17,200,671 (2018 estimate)

Official Languages: Dutch

Boarding Countries: Belgium, Germany

Coastline: 451 km (280 miles)   

Currency: Euro (EUR)

Government: Constitutional Monarchy


The Netherlands has a maritime climate, with cool summers and mild winters. The average temperature is 2°c (36°f) in January and 19°c (66°f) in July, with an annual average of about 10°c (50°f). Clouds generally appear every day, and in the winter months fog often abounds, while rainfall occurs frequently. Average annual rainfall is about 76.5 cm (30 in). 

Five Largest Cities/Towns: 

1. Amsterdam (741,636)

2. Rotterdam (589,199)

3. The Hague (474,292)

4. Utrecht (290,529)

5. Eindhoven (209,620)

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