General Facts

Area: 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq miles)

Capital City: Lima

Population: 32,553,697 (2018 estimate)

Official Languages: Spanish

Boarding Countries: Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Colombia

Coastline: 2,414 km (1,500 miles)

Currency: Sol (PEN)

Government: Semi-Presidential Republic


Although Peru's seaboard is situated well within the tropical zone, it does not display an equatorial climate; average temperatures range from 21°c (70°f) in January to 10°c (50°f) in June at Lima, on the coast. At Cuzco, in the sierra, the range is only from 12°c (54°f) to 9°c (48°f), while at Iquitos, in the Amazon region, the temperature averages about 32°c (90°f) all year round. Latitude has less effect upon the climate of the sierra than altitude. The rainy season in the Andes extends from October to April, the reverse of the coastal climate. Temperatures vary more from day to night than seasonally. The snow line ranges from 4,700 to 5,800 m (15,500 to 19,000 ft). In the eastern rain forest, precipitation is heavy, from 190 to 320 cm (75 to 125 in) annually; rain falls almost continuously between October and April.

Five Largest Cities/Towns: 

1. Lima (9,866,647)

2. Arequipa (1,256,002)

3. Trujillo (850,230)

4. Chiclayo (799,034)

5. Huancayo (659,300)