Saudi Arabia

General Facts

Area: 2,149,690 km2 (830,000 sq miles)

Capital City: Riyadh

Population: 33,000,000 (2017 estimate)

Official Languages: Arabic 

Boarding Countries: Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen

Coastline: 2,640 km (1,640 miles)

Currency: Saudi Riyal (SAR)

Government: Islamic Absolute Monarchy


The climate is generally very dry and very hot; dust storms and sandstorms are frequent. Day and night temperatures vary greatly. From May to September, the hottest period, daytime temperatures reach 54°c (129°f) in the interior and are among the highest recorded anywhere in the world. Temperatures are slightly lower along the coasts, but humidity reaches 90%, especially in the east, which is noted for heavy fogs. From October through April, the climate is more moderate, with evening temperatures between 16° and 21°c (61° and 70°f). Average annual rainfall is 9 cm (3.5 in), with most rain falling from November to May. In late spring and early summer, a strong northwesterly wind known as the shamal produces sometimes severe sand and dust storms.

Five Largest Cities/Towns: 

1. Riyadh (4,205,961)

2. Jeddah (2,867,446)

3. Mecca (1,323,624)

4. Medina (1,300,000)

5. Sultanah (946,697)