Area: 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq miles)
Capital City: Dushanbe
Population: 8,734,951 (2016 estimate)
Official Languages: Tajik
Boarding Countries: China, Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan
Currency: Somoni (TJS)
Government: Presidential Constitutional Republic
The climate ranges from semiarid to polar. In the semiarid regions, extreme temperatures have reached 48°c (118°f) in the summer. In the eastern Pamirs, winter temperatures have dropped as low as -60°c (-76°f). The national mean temperature in July is 30°c (86°f). The mean temperature in January is 0°c (32°f). Rainfall in most of the country averages 70 to 160 cm (28 to 63 in).