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General Facts

Area: 783,356 km2 (302,455 sq miles)

Capital City: Ankara

Population: 80,810,525 (2017 estimate)

Official Languages: Turkish

Boarding Countries: Bulgaria, Greece, Georgia, Armenia, Iran, Iraq, Syria

Coastline: 8,140 km (5,058 miles) 

Currency: Turkish Lira (TRY)

Government: Constitutional Republic


Turkey's southern coast enjoys a Mediterranean climate, and the Aegean coastal climate as far north as İzmir is much the same. The mean temperature range in these regions is 17–20°c (63–68°f), and the annual rainfall ranges from 58 to 130 cm (23 to 51 in). The Black Sea coast is relatively mild (14 to 16°c/57 to 60°f) and very moist, with 71 to 249 cm (28 to 87 in) of rainfall. The central Anatolian plateau is noted for its hot, dry summers and cold winters: the average annual temperature is 8–12°c (46–54°f), and annual precipitation is 30–75 cm (12–30 in). With the exception of some warmer pockets in the valleys, the eastern third of Turkey is colder (4–9°c/39–48°f), and rainfall averages 41–51 cm (16–20 in). 

Five Largest Cities/Towns: 

1. Istanbul (14,804,116)

2. Ankara (3,517,182)

3. Izmir (2,500,603)

4. Bursa (1,412,701)

5. Adana (1,248,988)

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