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General Facts

Area: 491,210 km2 (189,660 sq miles)

Capital City: Ashgabat

Population: 5,662,544 (2016 estimate)

Official Languages: Turkmen  

Boarding Countries: Iran, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan

Coastline: 1,768 km (1,099 miles) - Coastline of landlocked Caspian Sea.

Currency: Turkmen New Manat (TMT)

Government: Authoritarian Presidential Republic 


The climate is arid continental. In July the mean temperature is 28°c (82°f). The mean temperature in January is -4°c (25°f). It can become very hot in the Kara Kum desert, with daytime temperatures of 50°c (122°f) not unusual. It does not rain much in Turkmenistan. Rainfall averages 25 cm (9.8 in) a year).

Five Largest Cities/Towns: 

1. Ashgabat (727,700)

2. Turkmenabat (234,817)

3. Dashoguz (166,500)

4. Mary (114,680)

5. Balkanabat (87,822)

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